Job Market Research in Bahrain

1. What are the current job market trends in Bahrain?

The current job market in Bahrain is experiencing growth in certain industries, while facing challenges in others. Some of the key trends observed in the job market are:

1. Increase in demand for professionals in the healthcare industry, due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

2. Growth in the technology sector, with a focus on digital innovation and e-commerce, leading to an increase in demand for IT and digital marketing professionals.

3. Bahrain’s push towards diversifying its economy has also created opportunities for skilled professionals in sectors such as banking and finance, construction, and tourism.

4. The implementation of nationalization policies has led to an increase in hiring of local Bahraini talent in both public and private sector organizations.

5. Remote work arrangements have become more common due to the pandemic, making it possible for companies to hire talent from other countries and creating a more globalized job market.

6. With increasing competition across various industries, employers are looking for candidates with diverse skill sets and a willingness to continuously learn and adapt.

Overall, the job market in Bahrain is dynamic and offers opportunities across various industries. The government’s efforts towards economic diversification and nationalization policies have also impacted recruitment processes, making it important for job seekers to remain updated on these developments.

2. How has the job market in Bahrain been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic?

The job market in Bahrain has been significantly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The country, like many others around the world, has experienced a slowdown in economic activity and an increase in unemployment due to measures put in place to control the spread of the virus.

1. Loss of jobs: The pandemic has led to businesses closing down or reducing their operations, resulting in job losses across various industries. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), as of April 2020, about 36% of companies in Bahrain had reported laying off workers due to the pandemic.

2. Hiring freeze: Many companies have implemented hiring freezes and are not actively recruiting new employees. This has affected both local and expatriate job seekers.

3. Reduced working hours and pay cuts: In order to cope with the economic impact, many businesses have reduced working hours or implemented pay cuts for their employees.

4. Impact on specific industries: Some industries have been particularly hard hit by the pandemic, such as tourism, hospitality, and aviation. These industries rely heavily on international travel which has been greatly restricted due to the pandemic.

5. Increase in remote work: While some jobs may have been lost due to the pandemic, there has also been an increase in demand for remote workers as companies adapt to a work-from-home model.

6. Government support: To mitigate some of the impact on employment, the government of Bahrain announced various initiatives such as wage subsidies and support for small businesses that were affected by the pandemic.

Overall, while there have been challenges in the job market due to COVID-19, efforts are being made by both private and public sectors to support businesses and minimize adverse effects on employment.

3. What industries are thriving in the job market of Bahrain?

The following industries are currently thriving in the job market of Bahrain:

1. Oil and Gas: Bahrain is a major producer of oil and natural gas. The industry contributes significantly to the country’s GDP and provides many job opportunities in areas such as exploration, drilling, production, transport, and refining.

2. Banking and Finance: Bahrain has a strong financial sector, with numerous local and international banks operating in the country. The banking and finance industry offers a wide range of job opportunities in areas such as investment banking, retail banking, insurance, financial planning, and wealth management.

3. Construction: The construction industry has been growing rapidly in Bahrain due to increased investments in infrastructure projects by the government. This has created a high demand for skilled professionals in areas such as project management, engineering, architecture, and construction management.

4. Tourism: Bahrain is a popular tourist destination with a vibrant hospitality sector that offers job opportunities in hotels, restaurants, travel agencies, and other related industries.

5. Healthcare: As an aging population and increasing life expectancy drive up demand for healthcare services, there is a need for qualified professionals in the healthcare industry. This includes doctors, nurses, technicians, pharmacists, administrators, and other support staff.

6. Information Technology: The IT sector is expanding rapidly in Bahrain as the government looks to diversify its economy away from oil. There are ample opportunities for software developers, IT support specialists, network administrators/analysts.

7. Education: With an increasing emphasis on education by the government of Bahrain coupled with a growing population size that demands access to quality education; this sector also boasts of huge potential for growth; creating lots of job openings in this field especially for teachers/professors at all levels – including pre-school; primary school; secondary/ high school; vocational/ tertiary level institutions/classes among others .

8. Retail: The retail sector is thriving due to increased consumer spending power in Bahrain. This has resulted in a demand for professionals in areas such as retail management, sales, merchandising, and marketing.

9. Telecommunications: Bahrain has a well-developed telecommunications infrastructure and a growing market for mobile and internet services. This industry offers job opportunities in areas such as telecommunication engineering, customer service, sales, and marketing.

10. Manufacturing: Bahrain has a diverse manufacturing sector that includes industries such as aluminum smelting, food processing, chemicals, plastics, and textiles. The manufacturing industry provides employment opportunities in production, maintenance, quality control/assurance and research & development roles among others.

4. Are there any emerging or growing industries in the job market of Bahrain?

Yes, some of the emerging or growing industries in the job market of Bahrain are:

1. Information Technology (IT): The demand for IT professionals is increasing in Bahrain as more companies are investing in digital transformation and technology-based solutions.

2. Healthcare: With a growing population and increasing focus on healthcare services, there is a high demand for healthcare professionals in Bahrain.

3. Renewable Energy: Bahrain has set ambitious targets to diversify its energy sources and reduce dependence on oil. This has led to an increase in job opportunities in the renewable energy sector.

4. Logistics and Supply Chain Management: As an important trading hub in the region, Bahrain has seen significant growth in its logistics and supply chain industry, leading to a high demand for skilled professionals.

5. Hospitality and Tourism: The government of Bahrain is investing heavily in promoting tourism and developing infrastructure, resulting in a growing need for professionals in the hospitality industry.

6. Education: With a strong emphasis on education and supporting educational institutions, there is a high demand for qualified teachers and educators in Bahrain.

7. Financial Services: As one of the leading financial centers in the Middle East, Bahrain has a thriving financial services industry with many job opportunities for banking, finance, and accounting professionals.

8. Manufacturing: The government of Bahrain is actively promoting industrialization and diversification of its economy through various incentives, leading to growing job opportunities in the manufacturing sector.

9. Real Estate: With several major real estate projects underway, there is an increasing demand for professionals in construction, architecture, engineering, and property management industries.

10. E-commerce: As internet penetration rates increase in Bahrain, more businesses are moving online. This has created a demand for professionals with skills in e-commerce operations, digital marketing, and web development.

5. How does the unemployment rate in Bahrain compare to other countries?

The unemployment rate in Bahrain is relatively low compared to other countries. According to the latest data from the World Bank, Bahrain’s unemployment rate was 4.6% in 2020, which is lower than the global average of 5.4%. It is also lower than other countries in the region such as Saudi Arabia (12.9%) and Oman (16.3%). However, it is slightly higher than some developed countries like Japan (2.8%) and Germany (3%).

6. What is the average salary range for different job roles in Bahrain?

The average salary range for different job roles in Bahrain varies depending on several factors such as industry, experience level, and company size. However, according to data from PayScale, some of the popular job roles in Bahrain and their average annual salaries are:

1. Financial Analyst – 6,500 BHD to 14,000 BHD
2. Human Resources (HR) Manager – 9,700 BHD to 19,500 BHD
3. Sales Executive – 4,000 BHD to 10,000 BHD
4. Marketing Manager – 8,200 BHD to 16,700 BHD
5. IT Project Manager – 12,300 BHD to 21,000 BHD
6. Mechanical Engineer – 7,600 BHD to 14,600 BHD
7. Nurse – 6,300 BHD to 13

7. Are there any specific skills or qualifications that are highly sought after in the job market of Bahrain?

Some specific skills and qualifications that are highly sought after in the job market of Bahrain include:

1. Bilingual proficiency: Fluency in both English and Arabic is highly valued by employers, as it allows for effective communication with both local and international clients.

2. Technical skills: Bahrain’s economy is heavily reliant on industries such as oil & gas, banking, information technology, and healthcare. As a result, candidates with technical skills such as engineering, finance, IT and healthcare are in high demand.

3. Leadership and management skills: Employers in Bahrain look for candidates who possess strong leadership and management skills to lead teams effectively.

4. Cross-cultural awareness: With a diverse workforce and many multinational companies operating in Bahrain, employers value employees who have cross-cultural awareness and sensitivity towards different cultures.

5. Professional certifications: Holding relevant professional certifications and accreditations can give candidates an edge in the job market of Bahrain. Examples include project management certifications like PMP or industry-specific qualifications like CFA for finance professionals.

6. Flexibility and adaptability: Employers seek candidates who can adapt to changing business needs and work well under pressure in a fast-paced environment.

7. Knowledge of local laws and regulations: Familiarity with the legal framework of Bahrain is essential for working efficiently in the country’s business environment.

8. Digital literacy: As businesses increasingly rely on technology, candidates with strong digital literacy skills are highly sought after by employers.

9. Communication skills: Effective communication is critical for building relationships with clients and colleagues in any job role.

10. Education qualifications: Higher education degrees from reputable universities are valuable assets that can enhance employability prospects in Bahrain’s job market.

8. How do local businesses and international corporations contribute to the job market of Bahrain?

Local businesses and international corporations both play important roles in creating job opportunities in Bahrain.

Local businesses, especially small and medium-sized enterprises, are considered the backbone of Bahrain’s economy. They employ a significant portion of the population and contribute significantly to overall economic growth. These businesses range from traditional sectors such as retail, hospitality, and construction to more modern industries such as technology and finance. By providing diverse job opportunities across various sectors, local businesses help in reducing unemployment rates in the country.

On the other hand, international corporations bring new investment and job opportunities to Bahrain. Many multinational companies have established their operations in Bahrain due to its strategic location, favorable business environment, and competitive workforce. These companies create jobs at all levels from entry-level positions to managerial roles for both local and expatriate workers.

International corporations also bring new skills and knowledge to the workforce through training programs and technology transfer initiatives. This helps in upskilling the local workforce and makes them more competitive in the global job market.

Furthermore, both local businesses and international corporations contribute to job creation indirectly by promoting economic growth and generating demand for goods and services. This leads to an increase in demand for labor across different industries.

In conclusion, both local businesses and international corporations are crucial contributors to the job market of Bahrain. They provide a diverse range of job opportunities across various sectors, contribute to economic growth, promote skill development among workers, and drive demand for labor.

9. Is there a gender wage gap present in the job market of Bahrain?

Yes, there is a gender wage gap present in the job market of Bahrain. According to data from the World Bank, women in Bahrain earn on average 40% less than men in equivalent roles. This gap is even wider in sectors such as finance and construction, where women earn around half of what men do.

The reasons for this gap are complex and multifaceted. One reason is due to traditional gender roles and expectations, which often lead to women having lower levels of education and fewer opportunities for career advancement. Discrimination and bias against women also play a role, with some employers offering lower salaries or limiting promotion opportunities to women.

Furthermore, there are laws in Bahrain that allow for different wages based on gender. For example, under the Labor Law, maternity leave benefits are only granted to female employees, leading some employers to use this as justification for lower salaries.

Efforts have been made by the government and organizations to address this issue and close the gender wage gap. The National Strategy for Women Empowerment aims to improve women’s participation in the labor force and promote equal opportunities for both genders. In addition, companies such as EY Bahrain and PwC Bahrain have implemented initiatives such as gender pay audits and flexible working policies to promote equal pay and opportunities for their employees regardless of gender.

Overall, while progress has been made towards reducing the gender wage gap in Bahrain, it still remains a significant issue that needs ongoing attention and action from both government and organizations.

10. Have there been any recent changes to labor laws or policies affecting the job market in Bahrain?

There have been a few recent changes to labor laws and policies affecting the job market in Bahrain. These include:

1. Introduction of Wage Protection System (WPS): The WPS was introduced in 2017 to ensure that all private sector employees receive their salaries through electronic transfer, thereby protecting their rights and preventing any delays or non-payment of wages.
2. Increase in minimum wage: In September 2020, the minimum wage for Bahraini nationals was increased from BD 200 to BD 220 ($530 to $584). This increase is expected to benefit around 70,000 Bahraini workers.
3. Reforms in the sponsorship system: In 2019, Bahrain announced plans to abolish the kafala (sponsorship) system, which ties foreign workers’ residency permits to their employers. This would enable foreign workers to change jobs without needing permission from their current employer.
4. Flexible work options: As part of its efforts to support work-life balance, Bahrain has introduced flexible work options for employees, such as remote working and compressed workweeks.
5. Ban on certain jobs for women: In September 2020, Bahrain’s Labor Market Regulatory Authority (LMRA) banned women from working in certain industries considered dangerous or harmful to their health.
6. National Employment Program: The National Employment Program was launched in August 2020 with the aim of creating more job opportunities for Bahraini nationals and reducing unemployment among them.
7. Job security during COVID-19 pandemic: The government has implemented several measures to protect workers during the COVID-19 pandemic, including prohibiting layoffs and salary cuts without prior approval from authorities.

Overall, these changes are aimed at improving working conditions and promoting job growth in Bahrain’s labor market. Employers are now required to comply with these regulations to ensure fair treatment of employees and a more stable job market.

11. Are there any government initiatives or programs supporting job creation and employment growth in Bahrain?

Yes, the Bahrain government has several initiatives and programs in place to support job creation and employment growth in the country. Some examples include:

1. National Employment Program: The National Employment Program (NEP) provides training and job placement for Bahraini nationals in various industries such as construction, hospitality, and healthcare.

2. Tamkeen: Tamkeen is an agency that supports the private sector by providing training programs, financing schemes, and advisory services to help create jobs and boost economic growth.

3. Labour Fund (Tamkeen): The Labour Fund offers support to employers who hire Bahraini nationals, such as wage subsidies, recruitment incentives, and training grants.

4. Economic Development Board (EDB): The EDB focuses on attracting foreign direct investment and fostering economic growth by promoting investment opportunities and creating a conducive business environment.

5. Startup Bahrain: This initiative aims to promote entrepreneurship in Bahrain by supporting startups through funding opportunities, networking events, mentorship programs, and other resources.

6. National Labor Market Observatory (NLMO): The NLMO collects data on labor market trends and provides information to policymakers to improve employment policies in the country.

7. Labor Market Regulatory Authority (LMRA): The LMRA is responsible for regulating the labor market in Bahrain by ensuring fair working conditions for both employers and employees.

8. Flexi Permit: This flexible work permit allows expatriates to work part-time or freelance in certain sectors while retaining their sponsorship with their main employer.

9. Wage Protection System: In order to protect workers’ rights, Bahrain has implemented a Wage Protection System that ensures timely payment of salaries through electronic transfers by employers.

10. Disability Employment Program: The Ministry of Labour has launched a program to increase employment opportunities for people with disabilities in coordination with government agencies and relevant organizations.

11. Career Guidance Program: This program provides career advice, training courses, workshops, and internships for young graduates to help them acquire skills and find employment opportunities in their chosen fields.

12. How do educational institutions and workforce training programs prepare individuals for the job market of Bahrain?

There are several ways in which educational institutions and workforce training programs prepare individuals for the job market of Bahrain:

1. Curriculum: Educational institutions and training programs often design their curriculum in collaboration with industry experts to ensure that the skills being taught are relevant and in demand in the job market.

2. Practical Training: Many educational institutions offer practical training opportunities such as internships, co-op programs, and apprenticeships to provide students with real-world experience and exposure to the job market.

3. Career Counseling: Educational institutions often have dedicated career counseling services that help students identify their strengths, interests, and career goals and guide them towards paths that align with the job market of Bahrain.

4. Industry Connections: Many educational institutions have partnerships with local businesses, industries, and government agencies which help students gain hands-on experience through projects, mentorship programs or guest lectures from industry professionals.

5. Entrepreneurship Courses: With a thriving startup culture in Bahrain, many educational institutions offer courses on entrepreneurship to equip individuals with the skills needed to start their own businesses.

6. Language Training: As English is widely spoken in business settings in Bahrain, many educational institutions offer language courses to help individuals effectively communicate in English.

7. Customized Courses: Some educational institutions offer customized courses based on the specific needs of industries or employers. This helps individuals gain specialized skills that are directly applicable to jobs in Bahrain.

8. Job Fairs/Networking Events: Educational institutions often organize job fairs or networking events where students can interact with potential employers and learn about available job opportunities.

9. Workforce Development Programs: The government of Bahrain offers various workforce development programs aimed at upskilling and reskilling individuals to meet the demands of its growing economy.

10. Vocational Training: In addition to academic education, vocational training programs are also offered by technical institutes to prepare individuals for skilled trade jobs in fields such as construction, manufacturing, healthcare, etc.

11. Digital Skills: In today’s digital age, many educational institutions offer courses and training programs to equip individuals with digital skills such as coding, data analytics, and social media marketing that are in high demand in the job market.

12. Soft Skills Development: Along with technical skills, educational institutions also focus on building soft skills such as communication, teamwork, problem-solving, and time management to prepare individuals to thrive in the workplace.

13. What is the overall employment rate and turnover rate in Bahrain?

The overall employment rate in Bahrain was 79.3% in 2020. The turnover rate in Bahrain is not readily available, as it varies across industries and companies. However, a survey conducted by GulfTalent in 2018 found that the average annual turnover rate for white-collar jobs in the GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) region was around 10%, with Bahrain reporting a slightly lower average of around 9%.

14. Is remote work becoming more common in the job market of Bahrain?

There has been a growing trend of remote work in the job market of Bahrain, especially in recent years. This has significantly increased since the COVID-19 pandemic, as many companies have shifted to remote work arrangements to comply with safety regulations and reduce the spread of the virus.

According to a survey by Nuku Self Check-In, around 90% of businesses in Bahrain adopted some form of remote work during the pandemic. This has led to an increase in demand for skills like virtual management, communication and collaboration tools, and time management.

Additionally, there is a rise in freelancing opportunities and startups that offer remote work options for employees. The Bahraini government is also actively promoting flexible work arrangements and digital transformation initiatives that support remote working.

Overall, it can be said that remote work is becoming more common and accepted in the job market of Bahrain. It provides flexibility for both employers and employees, increases productivity and efficiency, and helps attract top talent from around the world.

15. How competitive is the job market currently for recent graduates?

The job market for recent graduates can vary depending on the current economic climate and the specific field of study. In some industries, competition for jobs may be fierce, while others may have more opportunities available. It is important for recent graduates to carefully research the job market in their field and be prepared to apply to multiple positions and network extensively in order to increase their chances of securing a job. Additionally, gaining relevant experience through internships or entry-level positions can also make graduates more competitive in the job market.

16. Do expats have equal opportunities in landing jobs compared to locals in Bahrain?

It depends on the specific job market and industry. In some cases, expats may have more opportunities due to their specialized skills and experience. However, there are also industries and roles where locals may be given preference, such as government positions in certain countries. The laws and regulations surrounding employment for expats in Bahrain may also play a role in job opportunities. Generally, it is recommended for expats to research the job market and understand any applicable regulations before pursuing employment in Bahrain.

17. Are there any particular areas or regions within Bahrain with a better job market than others?

There are several regions in Bahrain with a strong job market, including the capital city of Manama and the surrounding areas such as Seef, Juffair, and Adliya. Additionally, industrial areas like Sitra and Hidd also have an abundance of job opportunities in diverse sectors such as finance, construction, and logistics. The government has also invested in developing new economic zones like the Bahrain International Investment Park, which offers a variety of jobs in manufacturing and technology.

18 .What role does networking and personal connections play in finding employment opportunities in Bahrain?

Networking and personal connections play a significant role in finding employment opportunities in Bahrain. In a tight job market, it is often not enough to simply submit your resume and wait for a response. Building relationships and making personal connections can help you get your foot in the door and increase your chances of finding job opportunities.

In Bahrain, relationships are highly valued, and most jobs are filled through personal referrals or recommendations rather than through formal job applications. This is why networking and building personal connections are crucial for finding employment.

Here are some ways networking can help in finding employment opportunities in Bahrain:

1) Networking events: Attending networking events such as job fairs, conferences, seminars, or industry-specific events can provide excellent opportunities to connect with potential employers. These events allow you to interact with professionals from various industries, learn about job openings, and build relationships with people who can potentially refer you to job opportunities.

2) Online networking: Social media platforms like LinkedIn are widely used in Bahrain for professional networking. You can join groups related to your industry and actively participate in discussions to build connections. Connecting with people who have similar interests and professional backgrounds can open up new job opportunities.

3) Alumni networks: If you have studied in Bahrain or have alumni from your university residing there, reaching out to them for advice or career guidance can be beneficial. Alumni networks often have their own job boards where they post vacancies, making it easier for you to find relevant employment opportunities.

4) Personal contacts: Don’t underestimate the power of personal connections when it comes to finding jobs in Bahrain. Reach out to friends, family members, acquaintances, or former colleagues who live or work in Bahrain. They may be able to introduce you to someone who can refer you for a job opening.

5) Professional associations: Joining professional organizations or associations related to your field of work is an excellent way to expand your network and make new connections. These associations often hold events and workshops that can help you stay updated on industry trends and connect with potential employers.

In Bahrain, personal connections and networking are highly valued and can often be the key to finding job opportunities. Therefore, it is essential to focus on building and maintaining strong relationships with professionals in your industry, both online and offline. By actively networking and utilizing your personal connections, you can increase your chances of finding employment opportunities that may not be advertised publicly.

19. Are internships, apprenticeships, or entry-level positions readily available for those seeking entry into certain industries within Bahrain’s job market?

Yes, internships, apprenticeships and entry-level positions are readily available for those seeking entry into certain industries within Bahrain’s job market. Many organizations in Bahrain offer internship and apprenticeship programs to provide hands-on experience and training to students or new graduates. These programs are usually for a fixed period of time and can lead to permanent employment opportunities.

Entry-level positions are also available in various industries such as finance, hospitality, healthcare, information technology, and others. These positions may require some level of experience or education, but they are geared towards individuals with limited work experience.

Some ways to find these opportunities include attending career fairs, networking events, checking company websites for job postings, following job boards and recruitment agencies on social media platforms, and directly applying to companies of interest. It is also helpful to utilize online job search engines which cater specifically to internships or entry-level positions in Bahrain.

20. What challenges do foreign workers face when trying to enter or find employment within the job market of Bahrain?

1. Visa Requirements: Foreign workers need to have a valid work visa in order to legally work in Bahrain. This involves obtaining sponsorship from a Bahraini employer, which can be difficult as the government strictly controls the number of foreign workers in the country.

2. Language Barriers: The official language of Bahrain is Arabic, and while English is widely spoken in business settings, it may still pose a challenge for foreign workers who do not speak either of these languages.

3. Cultural Differences: Bahrain has its own unique culture and customs, which can take time for foreign workers to adapt to. This may include different norms for communication, dress code, work hours, etc.

4. Competition with Local Workers: The government aims to prioritize employment opportunities for their own citizens over foreigners. As a result, foreign workers face stiff competition from local job seekers when applying for jobs.

5. Discrimination: Some employers may show preference towards hiring Bahraini nationals over foreigners due to cultural and linguistic similarities. This can lead to discrimination against qualified foreign workers during the recruitment process.

6. Recruitment Agencies: Many companies in Bahrain use recruitment agencies to fill job vacancies, making it more challenging for foreign workers to find employment directly with companies.

7. Limited Job Opportunities: The job market in Bahrain is heavily dependent on the oil industry, which severely limits opportunities for workers in other sectors.

8. Work Permit Renewals: Foreign workers need to renew their work permit annually, which involves obtaining approval from both the Ministry of Labor and Immigration Department.

9. High Cost of Living: Despite being known for its relatively low cost of living compared to other Gulf countries, living expenses in Bahrain can still be high for foreign workers due to rent prices and utility costs.

10. Restricted Mobility: Some foreign workers may have limited mobility within the country due to restrictions on travel outside of their designated work area or sponsor-provided accommodation.

11. Lack of Social Security Benefits: Foreign workers in Bahrain do not have access to the same social security benefits as Bahraini citizens, such as retirement funds or unemployment benefits.

12. Different Working Hours: The work week in Bahrain typically runs from Sunday to Thursday, with Friday and Saturday as the weekend. This may differ from some foreign workers’ home countries, making it difficult to adjust to a new work schedule.

13. Islam as the State Religion: Bahrain has a predominantly Muslim population and follows Islamic principles in their culture and laws. This may pose challenges for non-Muslim foreign workers in terms of lifestyle choices, holidays, etc.

14. Limited Career Progression Opportunities: Foreign workers may face limited opportunities for career advancement in Bahrain due to restrictions on obtaining long-term residency or citizenship.

15. Living Conditions: Some foreign workers face substandard living conditions with overcrowded housing and inadequate facilities provided by employers.

16. Withholding of Passports: Some employers in Bahrain may withhold the passports of their foreign employees, which can make it difficult for them to leave the country or change jobs.

17. Lack of Job Security: Like any country, job security in Bahrain is not guaranteed for foreign or local workers. However, foreigners may feel more vulnerable due to being dependent on their sponsor for both visas and employment.

18. Underpayment or Exploitation: In some cases, employers may take advantage of foreign workers by underpaying them or not providing them with adequate working conditions.

19. Limited Rights and Protections: Foreign workers do not have the same legal rights and protections as citizens when it comes to labor laws and dispute resolution mechanisms.

20. Repatriation Costs: If a foreign worker loses their job or wishes to return home after completing their contract, they may face high costs associated with repatriation expenses such as flights and shipping fees.